Particle (Particulate) Removal

Fly ash is colloquially called dust. Incinerators produce 25 to 30 kg of dust per 1000 kg of waste. The most common methods of dust removal equipment from incineration exhaust are:

  • cyclones that use centripetal force to remove particles
  • fabric dust removers (commonly called “baghouse filters”)
  • electrostatic precipitators


Baghouses are widely used in industry and warehouses where powdered materials are employed. They use fabric filters to remove particles.

Electrostatic percipitation

Electrostatic percipitators are large expensive pieces of equipment that are intended to remove particulate matter from air or gaseous exhaust. Depending on how the process is run, this technology can remove a greater fraction of very small particles (under 5 nanometers in diameter) than wet scrubbers can. Configuations include Plate-Wire Precipitators and Flat Plate Precipitators and Tubular Precipitators (now rarely employed). A good document about this technology at is available from the EPA at